Filming day 1

We had our first day filming at the weekend, due to people having other commitments we didn’t get to the location until 2pm so didn’t have much time to film. However it was good to try things out at the location and see if any problems would arise. We laid all the belongings out in order and started filming.

We used a shoulder rig to create the POV shot and make it so it wasn’t handheld however looking back at the footage it is still a bit shaky due to the ground underfoot. When Abbie was using the shoulder rig, Denise would walk with her to try keep her more stable and also keep an eye out if there was any tree stumps that she could trip up on.



Filming went well however we didn’t give ourselves enough time before it got dark so we plan to return on Thursday to continue with filming.


Task 8 – TV in 2020

What do you think the TV viewing experience will be for viewers in 2020?

As technology advances the way we consume media is constantly evolving. With the rise of portable hardware such as smart phones and laptops we, as an audience can access TV anywhere we are with an internet connection. The increase in popularity with sites such as Twitter and YouTube means the TV viewing experience is changing.

In the last 10 years with the increase of the use of social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter, audiences are becoming more active in conversations about the TV they are watching, many TV programmes have Twitter profiles and hashtags which audiences can follow and join the conversation with people all over the world. In 2013, 15 percent of viewers said they enjoyed watching television more when social media was involved ( 2015). It seems obvious to say but audiences are very active when it comes to TV, Twitter has released a new app called Periscope where users can create and watch live broadcasts all over the world. “It’s very much a ‘now’ experience. And in the case of TV, it’s often those connecting moments that let you behind the scenes” Dan Biddle, Twitter UK’s director of broadcast media partnerships (Dredge 2015). In the next five years we may see a rise in technology like this an perhaps channels on our TVs especially for this kind of content. TV is becoming more and more personal, we aren’t separate from the characters we see on our screens and this is changing the viewing experience.

With the rise of on demand services such as Netflix that are becoming more popular and YouTube an easy site where viewers can access a wide range of short form content, there is a common debate about whether traditional broadcasting will eventually disappear. However,  “About 89 percent of the TV audience is still watching live broadcasts on the big screen, and the percentage that is only consuming on-demand content is less than a fraction of a percentage.” Victoria Jaye, Head of IPTV at the BBC (Casserly 2013). This would suggest that even with services like Netflix and YouTube, traditional broadcast TV isn’t going anywhere just yet. Different to on demand sites, YouTube has a vast amount of user generated content where audiences can create their own media and channels for a niche audience, something that isn’t necessarily available on broadcast TV. Some might argue these sites are taking over TV but I would say they are working nicely alongside each other.

Shows broadcast on a TV are still getting millions of views and people are using a second screen to communicate about these shows. They are using sites such as YouTube to find extra content for the show such as behind the scenes, cast interviews, exclusive clips etc. But traditional TV is still very popular, we just have more revolving around it and don’t have to sit in front of a box and become a passive viewer. We, as an audience, have the option to choose from a variety of platforms to view different types of media and we use this in our own individual ways.


Casserly, M. (2013) The Future Of TV [online] available from <; [20 November 2015]

Dredge, S. (2015) Twitter’S TV Strategy: Timelines, Periscope And Troll-Taming Talent [online] available from <; [20 November 2015], (2015) Living Social: How Second Screens Are Helping TV Make Fans [online] available from <; [20 November 2015]

The Future of TV

Can it capture the next generation?

In the UK, adults watch 3 hours 41 minutes of TV a day (


BARB Trends in Television Viewing 2014


Shows that have been running for a number of years are more popular than new shows. Audiences like ‘safe’ programmes – “warm bath TV” like familiar programmes with some entertainment.

Popular TV Genres


  • Entertainment
  • Drama
  • Documentaties

What worries terrestrial TV makers?

  • YouTube
  • Netflix
  • Sky Channels
  • Amazon Prime
  • Box set drama

YouTube stats

  1. “Gangman Style” – Korean musician PSY’s global hit is the most popular video in YouTube’s history. It has been viewed more than 2.2bn times
  2. Spoilt for choice – 100 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube every minute, thats about six millennia worth of video a year
  3. On the go – Almost 40% of YouTube views come from mobile devices
  4. Top three – YouTube is ranked as the third most popular website in the world, behind Google and Facebook
  5. Six billion and beyond – more than six billion hours of video are watched on YouTube every month
  6. PewDiePie – With more than 32 million subscribers, the Swedish vlogger is the most followed user on the site.

TV vs. YouTube

Even though content YouTube gets a lot of views in terms of viewing hours TV comes out on top.


However, TV is starting to fight back:

  • Fremantle in a joint venture with VICE Media has set up Munchies, an online food channel that provides short-form on-demand content
  • Channel 4 has created a hub for short-form content and appointed a commissioner for short-form
  • BBC3 has created an online space for short-form, two to ten minute documentaries

So is TV afraid really? 

  • The sense TV is losing its appeal is more a perception than reality
  • Viewing figures suggest that TV is doing ok
  • The increase in channels and platforms isn’t taking away from TV..they all seem to be existing well together
  • Books and cinema are still popular too – we tend to accumulate not discard.
  • BUT is this a secure position? What about the millennials?

The Millennium Generation, 14-15 year olds


How many hours are we online each day?

  • 8 hours 41 minutes
  • The average UK adult now spends more time using media or communications than they do sleeping (8 hours 21 minutes – the UK average)
  • But 16-24 year olds are skewing these results – they are cramming over 14 hours of media and communications activity into 9 hours 8 minutes eau day by multi-tasking, using different media and devices at the same time

Our children are the future

  • 1 in 3 children in the UK now have their own tablet computer which has nearly doubled in a year
  • Among children aged between 5 and 15, 34% now have their own tablet – rather than using devices belonging to their parents or school, up from 19% in 2013
  • Children are less likely to have a TV in their bedroom – decreased by a third over the past five years (from 66% in 2009 to 46% in 2014)

Social Media is influencing TV

“It was this sense of where TV used to be seen as a wave where you just sit and it crashes over you for an hour and you’re consumed, now there’s a sense that it’s actually made up of particles, like light. And each one of these particles can become a bigger moment on Twitter, on social, because everybody will gather around that, and it will be talked about and reference again and again.”  Dan Biddle, UK director of broadcast media, Twitter

  • TV used to be an immersive experience
  • Now the talk is about a “companion experience”
  • The way we consume TV is going through an evolutionary period
  • TV Shows now have their own websites and some with their own apps
  • “If you’re not watching live and reading the comments tom friends, your favourite celebrities, and even total strangers view Twitter – you’re missing half the show” Ellen McGirt.

Task 7 pt 2 – Our TV Format Development

Evidence the RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT for your group’s TV FORMAT (clearly highlighting your area of responsibility and individual effort);

After we had our job roles and teams we began by sitting all together and throwing ideas around. It was clear we wanted to do some kind of game show that involved students. Our first idea was ‘Saints and Sinners’ where contestants were given a set or moral dilemmas and depending on their answers they would either get closer to heaven (the goal) or closer to hell which would mean they lose their place in the show.

12045487_10153377610239811_2322923847075452149_o-2Another element we wanted was students vs lecturers, we tried to incorporate the two ideas together but we quickly realised that in the time scale we had it wouldn’t work. We decided to use students because there doesn’t seem to be a show that represents students correctly and we wanted to change that. Becks helped us with some names of who to contact and who would be interesting characters on our show and our producer set on contacting them and see if anyone was available.

After this we dev12195832_1084441628241670_1775690906114938555_neloped our ‘student vs lecturers’ idea into a structured format. We decided our show would feature challenges related to student life and the final round would be a quick fire general knowledge quiz. At first we were going to have 5 rounds but realised this would be too much for a 10 minute show so we reduced it to 3. At first we wanted 3 contestants on each team but this was proving difficult to fit into the lecturers schedule so we reduced the teams to 2 people per team. We decided that one of the challenges would be a VT so would be shot outside of the studio and before the show. We struggled to think of a name for our show so development of a brand was slow, at first someone suggested ‘Beat The Scholar’ but then the name ‘Uni-Versus’ was suggested, we all liked the play on words and this is what we went with.

Our format is as follows:

Intro – Presenters introduce the show and the contestants

Round 1 – Chubby Bunny, where one member of each team has to stuff as many marshmallows into their mouth and still be able to say an audible ‘chubby bunny’, whoever has the most marshmallows in their mouth wins

Round 2 – Shopping challenge, where one member of each team is given £10 and a list of items to get, whoever got back first with the most items and most change wins.

Round 3 – Quick fire quiz, a buzzer round where contestants can gain 1 point by answering correctly but if they answer incorrectly and the other team gets it right they gt double points.

Outro – The presenters announce the winner and then end the show.

We decided to use t12239341_10205111293889991_8137264035114164617_ohe colours yellow and our university colour blue for our logo and set design as these are bright and inviting colours. We all threw ideas around about the logo and we wanted to use a graduation hat somewhere, Chris created the logo and used a font that is seen a lot around universities so this helped create our brand and also hint at what the show is about  for outside viewers.

When we first started this project we were all very aware that students are underrepresented in TV shows so we wanted to create something for students to watch and also take part in.  As the show involves students as contestants this was also our main target audience. As students ourselves this made research easier as we thought about what we would like to see fellow students and lecturers do. Our primary audience is 16-30 year olds.

Snip20151130_2We were all given separate jobs to do aside from our studio jobs and mine was to create the website alongside Kieran. I created the domain and before this project I had never used Wix before so I had to play around a bit to get used to it before I could start the website. I used the same colours that were used in the logo. I looked at other game show websites and they seemed to have easy ways to get to latest episode, clips, galleries and so on. I included these elements in our website and also ensured it has clear social media links.

As part of their jobs, the producer, directer and the presenters wrote the script


We aren’t going to use anyone else’s media so we have to copyright issues.


We had to ensure that for the chubby bunny challenge we got vegetarian or Halal marshmallows as one of our contestants couldn’t eat the gelatine due to religious reasons. We made sure all our contestants signed a consent form and we also did a risk assessment:

12291914_1095813630437803_8657422393796299521_o 12314220_1095813623771137_8204902739059681503_o  11231045_1095813617104471_1269432363253473648_o11229920_10153304578576705_6213104932456644088_o

Risk Assessments



Task 7 – Boundaries

Choose a subject area that is likely to offend and consider what context would make the material appropriate for broadcast on UK TV. (Taste and Decency)

Violence and dangerous behaviour is likely to offend an audience. In order to make the material appropriate for broadcast on UK TV, programme makers must make sure the content is in the correct context. Programmes must not include material that  condones or glamorises violent, dangerous or seriously antisocial behaviour and is likely to encourage others to copy such behaviour (Ofcom 2015). Shows such as Crimewatch (BBC), 24 Hours in Police Custody (Channel 4) show violent behaviour carefully and ensure the audiences don’t see the behaviour as admirable.

As a producer, what do you need to do to broadcast material responsibly, that may cause offense or shock in your programme? 

In order to broadcast material responsibly, producers must consider the audience that will be watching at the time of broadcast and must consider the 9pm watershed. Content that includes themes such as violence and dangerous behaviour, nudity or offensive behaviour can only be broadcast after the 9pm watershed unless there is editorial justification. (Ofcom 2015). Producers should also give warning about the kind of content in the programme before it is broadcast in order to allow audiences to make their own decision on whether they think it will be suitable for them as a viewer.

Why do you need a contributor to sign a consent form? 

A consent form needs to be signed so that the producers can prove the contributors have given their informed consent to participate in the programme and that they fully understand the nature of their involvement. ‘We should treat our contributors honestly and with respect.  Our commitment to fairness is normally achieved by ensuring that people provide ‘informed consent’ before they participate.’ ( 2015) Informed consent is where the contributors know everything about their involvement. Exactly what information needs to be provided to contributors depends on the circumstances of each case and the nature of the programme and contribution ( 2015). It is also confirmation that the contributors know their contractual rights and obligations.

What is the “duty of care” you have, as a programme maker, to a contributor?

  • Programme makers need to ensure that contributors are aware of the nature of their involvement and the purpose of the programme and when and where it will be first broadcast,
  • Be made aware of any significant changes to the programme as it develops which might reasonably affect their original consent to participate, and which might cause material unfairness
  • Be told the nature of their contractual rights and obligations and those of the programme maker and broadcaster in relation to their contribution
  • Broadcasters or programme makers should not normally obtain or seek information, audio, pictures or an agreement to contribute through misrepresentation or deception. However it may be warranted to use material obtained through misrepresentation or deception without consent if it is in the public interest and cannot reasonably be obtained by other means. (Ofcom 2015)


Why do you need permission to broadcast creative work (music, film, art, poetry, readings etc) made by another artist in your programme?

You need permission to broadcast any creative work made by another artist due to Copyright laws which protects the work of another from being used in any way without their permission.  When permission is granted there will usually be various conditions the user needs to agree to. These might include a fee which ensures the creator gets paid for their work, as well as other conditions about how and where it can be used, limits on use and the way it must be acknowledged.  ( 2015)

In what context can you use clips from the Internet in a TV programme?

You can use clips from the internet in a TV programme for educational purposes, ‘Several exceptions allow copyright works to be used for educational purposes, such as: …Recording a TV programme or radio broadcast for non-commercial educational purposes in an educational establishment, provided there is no licensing scheme in place.’   ( 2014)

Bibliography, (2015) BBC – Fairness, Contributors And Consent: Contributors And Informed Consent – Editorial Guidelines [online] available from <; [14 November 2015], (2015) Fairness & Contributors- Channel 4 – Producers Handbook [online] available from <; [14 November 2015], (2015) Copyright Hub – An Introduction To Copyright [online] available from <; [14 November 2015], (2014) Exceptions To Copyright – Detailed Guidance – GOV.UK [online] available from <; [14 November 2015]

Ofcom (2015) The Ofcom Broadcasting Code [online] 1st edn. Ofcom. available from <; [14 November 2015]

Sound – Audio Vision and Critical Listening

Apocalypse Now

“We gestate in sound, and are born into sight. Cinema gestated into sight and was born into sound” Walter Murch

Persona, Ingmar Bergman, 1966

Reduced listening – Reduced listening has been identified by Pierre Schaeffer as a mode that focuses on sound itself independent of cause and meaning. This mode of listening is rooted in the process of fixing sound and recording; it is the possibility for infinite repetition that allows us to leave the cause and meaning of a sound to concentrate on the acoustic properties. ( n.d.)

Michel Chion, Audio Vision, 1990

Useful terms: 

Acousmatic – Pertaining to sound one hears without seeing its source. Radio and telephone are acousmatic media. In a film, an offscreen sound is acoustic

Added value – The expressive and/or informative value with which a sound enriches a given image, so as to create the definite impression (either immediate or remembered) that this meaning emanates “naturally” from the image itself.


Anempathetic sound – sound (usually diegetic music) that seems to exhibit conspicuous indifference to what is going on in the film’s plot, creating a strong sense of the tragic. For example, a radio continues to play a happy tune even as the character who first turned it on has died. The oppose of empathetic sound (again, usually music) whose mood matches the mood of the action. For example, the below scene from A Clockwork Orange

Point of audition – The audial equivalent of point of view. The perspective from which we are hearing the sound. What is the soundtrack focused on? Is the soundtrack objective or subjective. When and why does the sound move between these two modes?

Extension of the (diegetic) sound space – the degree of openness or largeness of the cinematic space suggested by the sounds. In null extension the sonic universe is shrunken to the sounds hear by a single character. In vast extension there is as nearly infinite a dilation of the sonic space as possible.

Internal sound – Diegetic sound that corresponds to the physical and/or mental interior of a character, e.g. heartbeats, voices imagined or recollected.

Rendering – The use of sounds to convey the feelings or effects associated with the situation on screen – often in opposition to faithful reproduction of the sounds that might be heard in the situation in reality. Rendering frequently translates an agglomerate of sensations. For example, sounds accompanying a fall is often a great crash, conveying weight, violence, and pain.

The Godfather

Synchresis – The forging of an immediate and necessary relationship between something one sees and something one hears at the same time (from synchronism and synthesis). The psychological phenomenon of synchesis is what makes dubbing and much other post production sound mixing possible.

The better the sound, the better the image.

“Film is 50% visuals and 50% sound” David Lynch, (n.d.) Audio-Vision [online] available from <; [13 November 2015]




Context is everything 

  • Broadcasters should be able to discuss any subject on TV but the context is crucial
  • Context = setting, tone, style, the aim or question, the choice of presenters and contributors
  • Expectations = the Channel and time slot give viewers a big clue about the likely content of the programme
  • Warnings – must warn viewers of any upsetting or distressing content in the programme, including swearing
  • Be mindful of the 9pm watershed

Taste and Decency

  • Embarrassing Bodiesembarrassing-bodies-s1_625x352
  • Due to the context of the programme, Channel 4 can show intimate parts of the human body because it is used for health awareness.
  • The presenters are actually doctors and the programme offers and innovative way to raise health awareness and de-stigmatise ’embarrassing’ body parts and medical conditions.

Duty of care

  • Contributors must sign a consent form so they understand that their image/words are going to be broadcast
  • Need to explain the premise of the show to everyone taking part
  • Should be honest about the nature of their involvement
  • Don’t need to tell them every question or scene -this generally kills spontaneity
  • As a producer – always act with integrity 
  • Social media – Increasingly producers also have to consider how to protect programme contributors from trolls/internet abuse. release the hounds

Release The Hounds – a horror, comedy gameshow 

The contributors go through a series of challenges to gain keys and then run along a runway with a pack of dogs chasing after them

In the first 5 minutes of the show you see the presenter Reggie Yates talking to the contestants and them clearly stating they know the rules, what is involved and that they wanted to take part and also letting the audience get to know them.

This clears the producers of any legal issues as the participants have clearly given their consent on screen as well as off screen

  • Aim to obtain consent in a form that is provable 
  • Wherever practicable, it is advisable for consent to be in writing (by letter, email or contributor consent form) or recorded on film or tape, demonstrating the information given to the contributor and their agreement to participate
  • Even when consent is implied, the contributor must have had sufficient understanding of the nature of the output.


Australian DJs Mel Greig and Mike Christian made a prank call to the hospital where Kate Middleton was ill impersonating the Queen. They spoke to a nurse who fell for the prank and gave information to the DJs about Kate, they didn’t hide her identity or gain her consent. After this was broadcast the nurse Jacintha Saldanha committed suicide, the presenter Mel received death threats, suffered depression and was out of work for 2 and a half years.

In April 2015, ACMA found that Today FM had breached the Australian commercial radio code of conduct by broadcasting a statement of an identifiable person without her consent and that they had treated her in a highly demeaning or highly exploitative manner.

“Basically, our integrity failed, common sense failed and the process failed when that call was aired,”

The prank was recorded the day before and then was broadcast the following day. The producers failed to look after the presenter Mel and the nurse. They didn’t obtain informed consent and didn’t assess the implications of doing the prank and then broadcasting it.


  • Broadcasters can get heavily fined
  • Programmes can get taken off air
  • Producers lose their jobs
  • Professional reputation damaged
  • Individuals may be sent to prison (manslaughter)
  • Harmful effect on contributor/s
  • Theft – copyright


“Some people are offended by equality, some people are offended by everything… I can justify everything I do. You have got to be able to look someone in the eye and tell them why you made that joke.”

Ricky Gervais

Idea changes

We are running out of time and we are struggling to find enough actors to play in our film. We have approached some of the societies at the universities but no interest from them. So we have changed our idea, rather than representing the refugees using people we are going to use belongings such as clothes, books, bags etc.

This is to make the audience ask questions about what they are seeing, such as why are the things there? Who to they belong to? Where are they now? And so on. We are still going to stick with the idea of having different time periods so we need to ensure we have the correct items. It is going to start with items from the 40s and then work up to modern day.

We have found a location for the film to take place and plan to film sometime in the week.


Task 6 – Masterclass

What makes a good game show

  • Clear identity – Something that is considered really important, this makes it easier for audiences to get a general theme of the show from the beginning
  • Simplicity – The fewer the rules the better, it can be easy to over complicate a game show.
  • Great play along – The viewer should be able to feel involved and engaged in the show, e.g. Catchphrase can be able to play along at home
  • Jeopardy – something considered important, “When a quiz show has genuine jeopardy, and you feel it, you know there is something in it” Jamie Ingley, development producer The Million Pound Drop. Also fun factor is important, merging jeopardy and fun factor works well on a game show.

How to get an idea on to the TV

  • Once you have initial idea, ‘top line’ – the first thought, you enter the development process by creating a structure – how many rounds (if any) are you going to have, how many contestants, how will the money work – will it build up in the show or a set amount, is it a rolling show etc. You have to decide what best suits your show.
  • When you’ve got your idea structured to a certain point you start running it through, “You don’t know how good something is until you’ve seen it.” Jamie Ingley

Finding contestants

  • Can be more difficult to find contestants for brand new shows, start out by sending leaflets to everywhere you can to get the interest out there – ‘Targeting period’
  • Once applications start to come in, start to call them and have a general chat about the show and see if they are interested and worthwhile coming in or an audition.

What makes a great contestant?

  • Different for every show but need to someway represent the tone and identity of the show
  • Find new faces as often as possible
  • People that can bring their own personality through in front of the camera and can be themselves and shine through.


  • There is a question producer, a producer AP and a question researcher and come up with the questions. Then they will pass them to their series producer or exec which they then get signed off.  After this they get sent of for verification and go through a more thorough check to ensure all the questions and answers are accurate.

How to keep shows fresh and exciting?

  • E.g. Catchphrase ran for around 16 years then had a gap of around 10-12 years and came back in 2013. They didn’t change the simplicity of the game but added something at the start and something at the end and also added more comedy. Presenter Stephen Mulhern is very warm, funny and entertaining and can get the best out of the contestants – this is massively important, considered a huge part of the success of the revival.
  • Contestant side of things – “always trying to find fresh faces not people that have been on 100 shows before, it isn’t a bad thing but we have to be careful if someone has been on another show recently and then come onto our show that are both pre-recorded that they both aren’t going out at the same time on different channels” Sarah Timbury, casting producer. Have a whole research team looking for different places for new contestants that might not be on gaming websites already.
  • Format wise – Take into consideration who the commissioner is, might inform the type of show you take to them. Think of a simple twist to create a fresh new idea, for example, with The Million Pound Drop the contestants start off with the money and lose it as they go along rather than building it up throughout the show.

How many shows recorded a day? 

  • If an established show and the team know how the format works they can record 3 or 4 shows a day
  • If a brand new show then you start with 1 or 2 a day. E.g. The Edge they are going to start recording 1 a day, then 2 and build up as they go along. They have 2 weeks to record 25 episodes.

Game show apps and online stuff – where is it going? 

  • Getting more and more important
  • The Million Pound Drop was the first live show to have the app where audiences could play along live and was very popular
  • “As it becomes easier to record live quiz shows and technology advances I think at some point the amount of people that interact with quiz shows will cross a critical threshold which means its worthwhile to make the show about the app, at the moment for 95% of shows it is an after thought” Jamie Ingley
  • Before apps, shows used to use the red button to be able to play along with shows

Tips for someone wanting to work on quiz shows

  • Casting perspective – got to be personable, like going out to meet new people, be able to communicate clearly
  • Development – Be able to come up with ideas
  • Get involved

I found this masterclass quite interesting, I didn’t realise how much of a team there is to create questions for the shows. In terms of development for our format, this masterclass emphasised the importance of ensuring the casting is done correctly so that the contestants make the show more exciting for the audience. For our format we need to ensure the contestants fit the show’s identity and will be entertaining characters. This masterclass also highlighted the importance of keeping things simple and not over complicating the show, this is so the audience can pick up the theme of the show quickly and not get confused and in the end turning the programme off.

I’ve learnt about the process of finding contestants which I find interesting. If a brand new show wants to find new fresh faces they need to make sure they have targeted a large group of people all over the country in the ‘targeting period’ to get the interest around and tell people about the show. I also find it interesting how an idea for a format can come from one simple line, the ‘top line’ which you then layer on aspects to create a whole format.

Artist’s Film: From Avant-Garde to Contemporary Experiments with the Moving Image

What is ‘avant-garde’?

  • From the French, Vanguard
  • Innovation
  • Experiment
  • Ahead of its time
  • Challenging
  • Pushing the boundaries
  • Radicalism (political and formal)
  • Against the mainstream
  • Music, literature, visual arts
  • European/historical avant-garde’s: Dada, Futurism, Constructivism, Surrealism
  • Co-existence of many different medias in one work of art – interdisciplinarity


  • 1909 – 1916 Filippo Thomaso Marinetti (1876 – 1944), published in Le Figaro
  • Attack on tradition: death to museums, libraries, traditional institutions
  • Fascination with the new world and technology (industrial revolution): speed, movement
  • The power of the machine
  • 1916 – Futurist Film Manifesto

‘The Futurist cinema’ is ‘a joyful deformation of the universe, an alogical, fleeting synthesis of life in the world’; it ‘will become the best school […] of joy, of speed, of force, of courage, and heroism. The Futurist cinema will sharpen, develop the sensibility, will quicken the creative imagination, will give the intelligence a prodigious sense of simultaneity and omnipresence. The Futurist cinema will thus cooperate in the general renewal, taking the place of the literary review (always pedantic) and the drama (always predictable), and killing the book (always tedious and oppressive).’  .T. Marinetti, Bruno Corra, Emilio Settimelli, Arnaldo Ginna, Giacomo Balla And Remo Chiti

  • Futurists – the first experiments with photography and film
  • Love Afoot (Amor Pedestre, Marcel Fabre, 1914) – shots of feet implying an adulterous love affair played out by three people
  • Thais (Anton Giulio Bragaglia, 1917) – the only surviving full length Futurist film; melodrama about love betrayal shot against the visionary set designs of Futurist painter Enrico Prampolini – film’s relationship to other avant-garde arts, i.e. painting


  • 1916 – late 1920s; Dada manifesto – Dada Soirée, Zurich; Hugo Ball (1886 – 1927)
  • Against war – men independent from war and nationalism, men ‘who live for their ideals’
  • Challenge to traditional notions of art, meaning and comprehension: Dada as a form of creative infantilism
  • Mockery of the traditional arts and meaning
  • In praise of irrationality as a challenge to any conventions
  • Anemic Cinema (Marcel Duchamp, 1926) Influence of Abstract painting 
  • Ghosts Before Breakfast (Hans Richter, 1929) Abstraction and Irrationality
  • Ballet Mécanique (Fernand Léger, 1923/4) The influence of Cubism and Abstract painting

German Abstraction 

  • 1920s Germany
  • Hans Richter and Viking Eggeling – painters
  • Abstract painting and movement = abstract film
  • Influence of Bauhaus and Cubism
  • Non-narrative play of geometrical shapes
  • Rhythmus 21 (Richter, 1921)
  • Diagonal Symphony (Eggeling, 1924)


  • 1919 – Russia, rejection of autonomous art; art at the service of the revolution
  • 1922 – Dziga Vertov (1896 – 1954), Russian Constructivist Film Manifesto – Kinoks; published in Kinofot
  • ‘Cinema-eye-man’
  • Camera as more perceptive than the human eye
  • Away with traditional (non-political) feature films which are a lie
  • The Man with the Movie Camera (Vertov, 1929)

Sergei Eisenstein (1898 – 1949)

  • Soviet Montage
  • Influence of theatre
  • Film created in tandem with theory
  • Film as a political tool
  • Commentary on social injustice
  • Battleship Potemkin (Eisenstein, 1925)


  • 1924 – 1939
  • Psychic automatism
  • The power of the unconscious – Sigmund Freud’s 1919 essay ‘The Uncanny’
  • The importance of dreams and free imagination
  • Art and Revolution
  • Return to Reason (Man Ray, 1923)
  • The Seashell and the Clergyman (Germaine Dulac, 1928)
  • Un Chien Andalou (Luis Bunuel and Salvador Dali, 1929)

American Underground: 1960s and 70s America 

  • Non-conformism
  • Film and criticism created in tandem
  • Challenge to conventions: sexual revolution, gay and lesbian movements
  • Minority movements
  • Film as a tool for personal and social freedom
  • Co-operatives – New York and Jonas Mekas
  • UK – Malcom LeGrice, William Raban, David Curtis
  • Blow Job (Andy Warhol, 1964) – challenge to traditional ways of storytelling; Warhol’s Factory 

Performance, Body Art and Feminism 

  • Meat Joy, Carolee Schneemann (1964)

‘Meat Joy is an erotic rite: excessive, indulgent, a celebration of flesh as material: raw fish, chicken, sausages, wet paint, transparent plastic, ropes, brushes, paper scrap. Its propulsion is towards the ecstatic: shifting and turning among tenderness, wildness, precision, abandon; qualities that could at any moment be sensual, comic, joyous, repellent. Physical equivalences are enacted as a psychic imagistic stream, in which the layered elements mesh and gain intensity by the energy complement of the audience.’