Choose a subject area that is likely to offend and consider what context would make the material appropriate for broadcast on UK TV. (Taste and Decency)
Violence and dangerous behaviour is likely to offend an audience. In order to make the material appropriate for broadcast on UK TV, programme makers must make sure the content is in the correct context. Programmes must not include material that condones or glamorises violent, dangerous or seriously antisocial behaviour and is likely to encourage others to copy such behaviour (Ofcom 2015). Shows such as Crimewatch (BBC), 24 Hours in Police Custody (Channel 4) show violent behaviour carefully and ensure the audiences don’t see the behaviour as admirable.
As a producer, what do you need to do to broadcast material responsibly, that may cause offense or shock in your programme?
In order to broadcast material responsibly, producers must consider the audience that will be watching at the time of broadcast and must consider the 9pm watershed. Content that includes themes such as violence and dangerous behaviour, nudity or offensive behaviour can only be broadcast after the 9pm watershed unless there is editorial justification. (Ofcom 2015). Producers should also give warning about the kind of content in the programme before it is broadcast in order to allow audiences to make their own decision on whether they think it will be suitable for them as a viewer.
Why do you need a contributor to sign a consent form?
A consent form needs to be signed so that the producers can prove the contributors have given their informed consent to participate in the programme and that they fully understand the nature of their involvement. ‘We should treat our contributors honestly and with respect. Our commitment to fairness is normally achieved by ensuring that people provide ‘informed consent’ before they participate.’ (Bbc.co.uk 2015) Informed consent is where the contributors know everything about their involvement. Exactly what information needs to be provided to contributors depends on the circumstances of each case and the nature of the programme and contribution (Channel4.com 2015). It is also confirmation that the contributors know their contractual rights and obligations.
What is the “duty of care” you have, as a programme maker, to a contributor?
- Programme makers need to ensure that contributors are aware of the nature of their involvement and the purpose of the programme and when and where it will be first broadcast,
- Be made aware of any significant changes to the programme as it develops which might reasonably affect their original consent to participate, and which might cause material unfairness
- Be told the nature of their contractual rights and obligations and those of the programme maker and broadcaster in relation to their contribution
Broadcasters or programme makers should not normally obtain or seek information, audio, pictures or an agreement to contribute through misrepresentation or deception. However it may be warranted to use material obtained through misrepresentation or deception without consent if it is in the public interest and cannot reasonably be obtained by other means. (Ofcom 2015)
Why do you need permission to broadcast creative work (music, film, art, poetry, readings etc) made by another artist in your programme?
You need permission to broadcast any creative work made by another artist due to Copyright laws which protects the work of another from being used in any way without their permission. When permission is granted there will usually be various conditions the user needs to agree to. These might include a fee which ensures the creator gets paid for their work, as well as other conditions about how and where it can be used, limits on use and the way it must be acknowledged. (Copyrighthub.co.uk 2015)
In what context can you use clips from the Internet in a TV programme?
You can use clips from the internet in a TV programme for educational purposes, ‘Several exceptions allow copyright works to be used for educational purposes, such as: …Recording a TV programme or radio broadcast for non-commercial educational purposes in an educational establishment, provided there is no licensing scheme in place.’ (Gov.uk 2014)
Bbc.co.uk, (2015) BBC – Fairness, Contributors And Consent: Contributors And Informed Consent – Editorial Guidelines [online] available from <http://www.bbc.co.uk/editorialguidelines/guidelines/fairness/contributors-and-informed-consent> [14 November 2015]
Channel4.com, (2015) Fairness & Contributors- Channel 4 – Producers Handbook [online] available from <http://www.channel4.com/producers-handbook/ofcom-broadcasting-code/fairness/fairness-and-contributors> [14 November 2015]
Copyrighthub.co.uk, (2015) Copyright Hub – An Introduction To Copyright [online] available from <http://www.copyrighthub.co.uk/find-out/what-is-copyright> [14 November 2015]
Gov.uk, (2014) Exceptions To Copyright – Detailed Guidance – GOV.UK [online] available from <https://www.gov.uk/guidance/exceptions-to-copyright> [14 November 2015]
Ofcom (2015) The Ofcom Broadcasting Code [online] 1st edn. Ofcom. available from <http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/broadcast/code-july-15/Ofcom_Broadcast_Code_July_2015.pdf> [14 November 2015]